Life and Spiritual Coaching

May 28, 2008

PMP Notes for Human Resource Management

Filed under: PMP — by Donna Ritter @ 6:44 pm
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  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) – people who are working on tasks identified on the WBS
  • Staffing Management Plan – when and how you need to hire what kind of talent
  • Learning Curve Theory – the cost to produce an item will decrease each time the production is doubled
  • Leading – establishing direction, aligning people and motivating and inspiring the team
  • Staff selection – base on previous experience, personal interests, personal characteristics, availability, competencies and proficiency
  • Reward and recognition – based on separately budgeted controllable cost; clear, explicit, achievable and cultural
  • Scientific Management – clear and specific procedures result in effeciency and motivation
  • Expectancy theory – results can be applied bu treating people with encouragement, givings them a sense of recognition and achievement, and giving praise publicly and criticism privately
  • Maslov theory – hierarchy of needs; 5 levels (physiological, safety, love and affection, esteem and self actualization); lower needs met first
  • Hertzberg theory – motivation/hygiene;hygiene factors need to be maintained;motivators or satisfiers are a sense of achievement and a sense of recognition for things done, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, growth etc. the dis-satisfiers or hygiene factors are company policies, relationships with supervisor, personal factors, status, security,  and others. Maintain hygiene factors by having a good working personal policy and good leadership practices, feeling of achievement, and recognition for work done; responsibility and empowerment.  
  • McGregor theory – Theory X managers think that all people are basically lazy and that unless they are threatened or in some way forced to do work, they will not do any work. These managers work direct work to be done and do not allow very much participation in any decision making. Theory Y managers think that people will do a good job for the sake of doing it. They believe in participative management and sharing information with the worker. These managers also listen to problems that are brought by their staff.
  • Theory Z – this theory believes that high levels of trust, confidence and commitment to work on the part of management leads to high levels of motivation and productivity.
  • Job design – change negative attitudes
  • Job enrichment – plan and control included; for motivational effects; a lack of boredom, a feeling that the work is meaningful, a feeling of being responsible, for the consequences of what work is done and how it is done and a feeling of competence in accomplishing the task.
  • Quality Circles – ad-hoc; volunteer group; address quality problems
  • Outputs from team development – performance improvements and input to performance appraisals
  • Project required direct and indirect costs for training are generally paid by the performing organization
  • Coercive and reward power depends on the person being influenced believing that the the thing being requested can actually be done, that the reward or punishment can actually be given by the influencer, and that the reward or punishment is sufficient to motivate the person being influenced to do the work.
  • Legitimate power – formal authority
  • Referent power – charismatic and virtues of the leader give him power
  • Expert power – knowledge or ability
  • Representative power – delegated
  • Conflict resolution – frustration acceptable; 5 ways of resolving conflicts: forcing, smoothing, compromising, problem solving (confrontation), withdrawing.
  • Forcing – permanent solution, win-win lose approach, not good for building teams
  • Smoothing – minimizing disagreement by making differences seem less important; demphasize area of difference, good for team but conflict may return
  • Compromise – give up something to reach a common ground
  • Problem solving (confrontation) – all disagreements must have one correct solution
  • Withdraw – worst; negative; “Cooling off”
  • For most meetings 10 people are optimum. Have a clear agenda, facilitator and time keeper. Things off the agenda are not discussed but a new meeting will be scheduled to discuss.

PMP Notes for Quality Managment

Filed under: PMP — by Donna Ritter @ 6:38 pm
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  • Quality – characteristics; ability to satisfy stated or implied needs; conformance to requirements; fitness for use
  • Grade – a category or rank given to entities having the same functional use but use different technical characteristics. Determining and delivering the required levels of both quality and grade are the responsibilities of the Project Manager and project management team.
  • Modern quality management complements project management in customer satisfaction, prevention over inspection, management responsibility and processes within phases (plan-do-act-check).
  • Quality planning – determine quality standards; may need to modify organization quality policy, stakeholders fully aware, have inputs from the scope statement, product description and other related processes; risks weighed.
  • Quality assurance – monitor overall quality; provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards; through the project; internal and external.
  • Quality Control – measure specific quality
  • The quality assurance and control processes share the same inputs as the quality management plan and operational definitions, which are outputs of the quality planning. The work results and checklists are inputs to the quality control while the results of quality control measurements input to quality assurance. The outputs of both have quality improvement.
  • Cost of quality – tools of quality planning, prevention, appraisal,  and failure (prevention, evaluation, repair)  costs the  the latter is broken down into internal and external costs; memeasurement and test equipment costs. Deming  said “85% of the cost of quality are the direct responsibility of management”.
  • Metrics – operational definitions; output of quality planning; specify what and how to measure.
  • Quality inspection – attributes or measurements
  • Attribute sampling – result can either conform or not; fast; cheap; accurate
  • Variables sampling – result rated in a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity
  • AQL (acceptable quality level)- % limit to accept; AQL 5% in 100 means that among 100 tested, of no more than 5 unqualified are found it will be acceptable.
  • “Buyer’s Risk” – unqualified products are shipped to the customer as the result of sampling not being able to detect issues
  • “Seller’s Risk” – qualified products are rejected to ship to the customer as the result of sampling not treating the whole
  • In a control chart, the X is the mean value of the process data; X bar is the line. The Upper Control Limit (UCL) is 3* SD, the LCL (lower control limit is -3*SD.
  • R chart means the range chart. Usually the sample’s range is calculated and the R is the mean of the range. R bar is the line.
  • Usually the sample average ford not equal to the control average, X bar can be a calculated value or intentionally set up to manage the control.
  • “Rule of 7” – if there are 7 or more points in succession that are either above or below the mean value there is cause for concern about the process.
  • Special causes – unusual events; specific people operating; intermittent and unpredictable; output is not stable over time and unpredictable; output is not stable oer time and not predictable; all processes must be brought into statistical control by first detecting and removing the Special cause variation.
  • Common causes – system design; only corrected by  the management; output distribution stable over time; no adjustment; normal process variables
  • Kaizen – continuous quality improvement; even the processes are operating without problem

 

PMP Notes for Project Cost Managment

Filed under: PMP — by Donna Ritter @ 6:28 pm
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These are just notes I had during my PMP study sessions More can be said and examples given for all of these notes.

  • Price – what customer is willing to pay; justify the cost
  • Cost – resources consumed; spending –  time phased expenditures
  • “50 – 50 rule” – 50% of the earned value is credited as earned value when the activity begines. The remaining 50% is not credited until all the work is done.
  • Resource planning – affected by the nature of the project and organization.
  • Life cycle costing – product/ service future committments (guaruntees, warrenties and ongoing services)
  • Value engineering – creative approach used to optimize life cycle costs, save time, increase profits, improve quality, expand market share, solve problems, and/or use resources more effectively. It is used with life cycle costing to reduce cost and time, improve quality and performance and optimize the decision-making. A technique used in product analysis in the scope planning process.
  • “Order of magnitude scheduling” – beginnning; -25% to +75%
  • Budget scheduling  -10% to +25%
  • Definitive estimate  -5% to +10%
  • Bottom up scheduling – definitive; rolling up the items of the WBS, -5% to +10%; higher cost and longer time to get estimate
  • Top Down scheduling – limited infomrmation; on single estimate; not very accurate
  • Anallogous scheduling – top downl; use of experts; for example, a 1000 sq foot house costs $50 for each foot in the past, now a 1000 new one should have the same cost and a 3000 sq foot one should cost 3 times more.
  • Parametric – top down; use parameters; statistical relationsips; most likely to be reliable when 1) historical information used to develop the model is accurate; 2) the parameters used in the model are readily quantifiable; 3) the model is scalable (i.e. it works well for a very large project as well as a very small project). For example, a 1000 sq ft house costs $50 for each foot in the past and the new house has 3000 sq ft so the new cost should be 3000*$50.
  • Cost budgeting – allocating; include cost of risk reponses; contigency plans and management reserve for unidentified risks.
  • Variances many have differt impact over project phases. Earlier variances are more significant.
  • Earned Value – approved cost estimates for activities completed during a given period. IT usually comes from the budget unit cost with actual units.
  • Cost performance index (CPI) = Earned Value (EV) / Actual cost (AC), the amount of work accomplished per dollar spend.
  • Cost variance (CV) = EV – AC
  • Schedule Performance index (SPI) =  EV – Present Value (PV)
  • Critical ration = CPI * SPI
  • Estimate at completion (EAC) can be calculated different ways; When it is based on project performace and risk quatificaiton, current variances are typical. EAC = BAC/CPI or EAC = AC + (BAC-EV/(CPI * SPI)
  • A more optimistic calculation when current variances are atypical and similar variances are not likely to occur in the future: EAC = AC + BAC – EV
  • The estimate to complete (ETC) = EAC – EV = BAC/CPI – EV = BAC/EV*AC – EV
  • Estimated time to complete is the budgeted tome to complete / SPI
  • Variance at completion (VAC) = EAC – BAC
  • Project completed, EV = PV. All values available to e earned have been earned
  • Level of effort costs – AC = EV, earned on passage of time
  • Spending variance = Present value (PV) – Actual value (AC)
  • Project physical progress valued by schedule variance EV – PV. You are ahead of if this calculation is >0.
  • If a project is over budget 25% during project phases, the project wil be completed with an iver budget condition greater than 25%
  • Economic Value Added (EVA) – net profit compensates for cost of assets
  • Sum of hte year’s digits method – 5 year, total is 5+4+3+2+1=15, first year 5/15, second year 4/15, third yeat 3/15…
  • Double declining balances – 50% off the book value each year
  • The total project budget contains the operating project budget or baseline, the contingency reserve and the management reserve. The projet baseline is increased by the amount of risk although the total project budget stays the same.

 

PMP Project Time Management Notes

Filed under: PMP — by Donna Ritter @ 6:20 pm
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My notes on Time Management for the PMP test.

 

     ·Baseline – original approved with approved change 

·Work Breakdown Structure: WBS – most central item; deliverable oriented;

 The WBS helps to define scope. One teacher told me if you do not know the answer to a

 question, it is probably WBS.

·Refinements = WBS updates; Revisions = Schedule updates

 (usually a result of scope/cost change, start/finish date)

·Work package – lowest level to manage; lowest level of WBS;

 assigned to one person; broken into activities, and then discrete tasks;

 level-of-effort, proportionate

·WBS dictionary – work package descriptions; schedules; budgets;

 and staff assignments

·CWBS, Contractual WBS – when and what information supplied

 to the buyer

·OBS, Organizational BS – relate work package to individuals and

 resources; organizational WBS

·Change control process – set up in scope definition; implemented with baseline;

 authorized change; itself need to be authorized

·Dependencies – mandatory, discretionary, or external; restricted by constraints

·Project network diagrams – activities and the logical relationships; explanation of their

 sequencing; PERT chart; PDM is a method

·Activity duration estimates – specific numbers, range, possibility; 2 weeks ± 2 days

 or 85% probability 3 weeks or less

·Leads – start earlier; -; FS –2 the successor start 2 days earlier before the finish of the

 predecessor

·Lags – more time needed, +; FS +2 the successor start 2 days later after the

 finish of predecessor

·Effort – people-hours; estimated cost

·Duration – time to do a task; only working time

·Span – time that elapsed between the start and finish; considered in activity

 duration estimating

·Total float, or Slack = LF – EF or LS – ES based on duration, not activity

·Total float (slack) – time of activity can be delayed without causing a delay in

 the overall project time; negative float not enough time; accident of the logic;

 no risk consideration involved; chain activity floats are all the same but can only

 be used once

· Free float – time of activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of

 any immediately following activities; no negative; occur when two or more

 activities share a common successor

·Float variance analysis – sorted sub critical activities analyzed

·Critical path – group of activities; “zero float”; longest path; shortest

 finish time; could not delay without delaying the project no resource constraints

 considered; deterministic numbers; not critical activities, just activity duration;

 may change as time progresses; may have more than 1

·Overloaded resources may result inefficiencies

·Resource leveling – accommodate resource constraint; result longer than

 preliminary schedule; adjustments to critical activities; reduce the over-utilization

 of resources. This is very easy to use with Microsoft Project Server.

·Critical chain – schedule with resource limits; buffers used; time/resource/risk

·Crashing – doing anything to reduce delay; often higher cost; time/cost optimization

·Fast tracking – overlapping of project phases or activities; often rework or higher risk.

· A project schedule should not be adjusted by lengthening the duration of the activities

·Buffering – increase schedule or reduce risk; using lags in the relationships

 or creating buffer activities (create a duplicate activity for each activity that is to be buffered)

·Gantt Charts – timing and orders; hide relationships and resource requirements

·PERT, Project Evaluation and Review Technique

·Expected Value = (Optimistic + 4*Most Likely + Pessimistic)/6

 Normally, the expected value is higher than the average value and  

 the most likely value because most activities take more time rather than less.

 The most likely value has a higher probability than the expected value (Standard Deviation =

(Pessimistic – Optimistic)/6

·95.5% probability of being within 2* Standard Deviation of the expected value (mean value)

·99.7% probability of being within 3*Standard Deviation of the expected value

·Project duration – only the critical path duration and SD

·In PERT, if the scheduled project completion time and sum of the average completion

 time for critical path activities are the same, the probability of completing the project

 on schedule is estimated at 50%, assuming no other paths are near-critical.

·PERT assumptions – stable critical path; “Beta” probability distribution; defined time;

 resource free; cost direct of time; no time value

·GERT, Graphic Evaluation and Review Technique – simulation; probability distributions

 and conditional logic; looping

·The result of CPM, PERT, GERT dates are not the schedule, but rather indicate the

 time periods within which the activity could be scheduled given resource limits and

 other known constraints.

·Monte Carlo – simulation; result probability of each possible date or cost;

 You need pessimistic, optimistic, and most likely values and likelihood of the estimate between

 the optimistic and most likely values

·Simulation – uncertainties translated into impacts and possibilities; used in schedule

 development & quantitative risk analysis; Monte Carlo, GERT, What-if;

·The project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have

  been confirmed. This would usually happen no later than the completion of project

  plan development.

·The supporting details of the project schedule – resource requirements by time period;

 Alternative schedules and schedule contingency reserves may be used.

·When risk occurs, schedule baseline will be adjusted to include the contingency

 reserve time, which will be deducted from the reserve pool.

 

PMP Integration Notes

Filed under: PMP — by Donna Ritter @ 5:57 pm
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·         Project management – application of knowledge, skills,

       and techniques to project  activities to meet or exceed

       stakeholder needs and expectations

·         Operations and projects share many characteristics: performed

       by people; constrained by limited resources; planned, executed 

       and controlled

·         Project – temporary endeavor; unique product or service; beginning

       and ending; life cycle; milestones; process groups 

·         Project – should be aligned with the organizational strategic objectives

·         Projects – progressively elaborated; products, goals and objectives

·         Project management – organizational efficiency and flexibility

·         Project Management Methodologies – detailed project life cycle descriptions

·         Project interfaces – organizational, technical, interpersonal

·         Project stakeholders – anyone has something associated with

       the project

·         Characteristics of phases: milestones, objectives, activities and 

       deliverables

·         Information flow between the executing process group and the

       controlling process group; knowledge areas of project quality

       management (quality assurance process, quality control process)

       and project communication management (information distribution

       process, performance reporting process)

·         Project Integration Management – processes integration;

       operation integration; project/product scope integration;

       describes the processes required to ensure that the various

       elements of the project are properly coordinated

·         Project Management Information System (PMIS) – tool of

       integration management; gather, integrate, and disseminate;

       outputs of all the project management processes

·         Configuration management  – ensure that the description of the

       product is correct and complete; an integrated change control

       technique; when change happens, make sure product functions

       and design characteristics are still kept correct; documented

       procedure used to apply technical and administrative direction

       and surveillance to 4 steps procedures

·         Projectized organization  – project manager power; focus

       and goals clear; efficiency sacrificed; no flexibility; used for large sized

       projects or remote projects.

·         Matrix organization – functional managers staffing and

       administrative work; project manager project work; balance of

       power; complex; demanding for communications and management skills;   

·         Traditional organization – functionally organized; difficult to changes;

       internally focused; still can have projects

·         Project office – projects processes and practices integration;

       provides direction, controls, and reporting structure for projects;

       centralized project management expertise; 3 functions – project

       management services, operation support, management competency;

       danger of project team authority eroding

·         The organization that is a formalized structure directed toward

       the support of the project community within the organization –

       project office

·         The organization that is a formalized structure where the project

       teams and the project managers reside – project management office

·         Planning – most important; executing – most time and costs;

       input preventive and corrective actions; Controlling – taking

       preventive and corrective actions

·         Change control system – tool for change control; a collection

       of formal, documented procedures that defines how project

       performance will be monitored and evaluated, and includes

       the steps by which official project documents may be changed.

       Also defines the Change Control Board.

·         Project conflicts – schedule, project priorities, personal resources

·         Lessons learned and historical records – essential inputs to every

       process

·         Historical records – project files, commercial database, project

       team knowledge

·         Inputs:

o   Contract Closeout has the least inputs

    (1, contract documents);

o   Risk Response Planning has the most inputs (11),

     followed by the Schedule Development (10)

·         Tools and techniques

o   4 processes; Scope Verification (inspection), Communications

      Planning (stakeholder analysis), Risk Management Planning

      (planning meetings) and Contract Closeout (procurement audits)

      have the least tools

o   3 processes; Project Plan Execution (6), Schedule Development (6),

      and Quality Control (6) have the most tools

·         Outputs

o   7 processes; Scope Verification (formal acceptance),

      Resource Planning (resource requirements),

      Cost Budgeting (cost baseline), Quality Assurance

      (quality improvement), Risk Management Planning

      (risk management plan), Solicitation (proposals) and

      Source Selection (contract) have the least outputs 

o   Risk Response Planning has the most outputs (11),

     followed by Cost Control (6) and Risk Monitoring

     and Control (6)

·         The project management team should familiar – statistical

       sampling techniques; organizational theory; team building

       activities

·         ISO 9000 provides minimum requirements for an organization

       to meet their quality certification standards

·         Same tools and techniques used

o   Cost Estimating and Cost Budgeting

o   Quality Planning and Quality Assurance

o   Information Distribution, Performance

     Reporting (Partial) and Administrative Closure (Partial)

·         Most used inputs

o   Constraints/Assumptions – 8

o   Project plan development

o   Scope planning

o   Scope definition

o   Activity duration estimating

o   Schedule development

o   Communication planning

o   Qualitative risk analysis

o   Procurement planning

o   WBS – 7

·         Scope verification

·         Scope control

·         Activity definition

·         Resource planning

·         Cost estimating

·         Cost budgeting

·         Risk management planning

·         Scope statement – 6

·         Scope definition

·         Scope verification

·         Activity definition

·         Resource planning

·         Quality planning

·         Procurement planning

·         Project plan

·         Project plan execution

·         Integrated change control

·         Team development

·         Information distribution

·         Performance reporting

·         Most used tools and techniques – expert judgments

o   Initiation

o   Scope planning

o   Activity duration estimating

o   Resource planning

o   Procurement planning

o   Solicitation planning

o   Source selection

 

 

Reason to Become a PMP

Filed under: PMP — by Donna Ritter @ 4:35 pm
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The Project Management Institute (PMI) institutes a globally recognized professsional credited program that promotes professional development and maintains an ISO 9001 certification in Quality Management  Systems. It is the world’s leading not-for-profit association for Project Management. As a member of PMI, you have access to a large library of state of the art information on Project, Program and Risk Management. You have the opportunity to network with some of the finest Projects Managers in the field.

There are 3 creditation programs you can take; The Certified Associate in Project Management, Project Management Professional and Program Management Profesional.

With more than 260,ooo members world-wide, PMI has set itself aside as the experts in Project Management.  I am a certified PMP and I can tell you that this certification has brought me job, networking and education opportunities I would never have had. Please contact me if you are interested or have questions about becoming a PMP.

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